Any recommendations for books that would help me learn how to identify what I'm tasting?
Have you read Tasting Beer by Randy Mosher?
Much agreement. However, I think the best way to learn how to identify what you are tasting is to work with others in a pseudo-tasting panel. If you can compare notes, its easier to identify flavors.
In Bottles: Honey Brown Porter, Raspberry Riesling, Mild Ale, Scotch Ale, Mild Ale
In a Keg: Munich Pale
Conditioning: Molasses Hard Cider
Fermenting: Flanders Red, ESB