I really think the consensus is correct. I fermented and pitched the yeast at too high a temperature.
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Fermenting too high can account for the esters. I'm not used to lager yeast getting all solventy and phenolic on me, though. I wonder if you had some other kind of wild yeast in there.
Racking too soon isn't your problem. Yeast don't typically metabolize phenols; diacetyl and acetaldehyde, mostly, is what you'd get if you racked too soon.
I would look at sanitation, yeast health, and fermentation temperature first. Did you have a long lag?
Also, I don't want to pick on you about this, but you seem to not understand the terminology of off-flavors too well. Take a look at the beer faults list from the BJCP web site to get a better idea of the terms. Or avoid using the specific brewing off-flavor terms and stick to the describing what you perceive using common terms.
The esters are slightly astringent.
I appreciate extra info, but astringency is a dry mouthfeel, so I'm having a hard time interpreting what you're trying to tell us.
It told me to bring it to pressure, then release the CO2 tank. Maybe the article assumes I will pressurized at 20psi? If I increase the psi, will it carbonate faster?