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Messages - mabrungard

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The other thing that a Total Chlorine test kit can tell you, is if your flow rate is too high and full removal is not achieved (aka: chlorine breakthrough). 

Remember that a garden hose can easily deliver about 5 gpm. A sink faucet could also come close to that. In either case, the flowrate far exceeds the 1 gpm rate that a standard 10 inch filter can treat for chlorine compounds. Putting a restrictor with a 1/16-inch diameter hole on the line will bring the flowrate down around the 1 gpm rate.

Rob, I hoping that you're monitoring the residual total chlorine in your filtered water in order to help you assess when the carbon cartridge is exhausted. That's the way we do it for our industrial clients. It's so important that there are automated monitoring equipment that constantly test that the filtered water chlorine compound concentrations are below limit. Of course that's unreasonable for a homeowner, but you can perform occassional tests with a simple swimming pool test kit to confirm if and when there is chlorine breakthrough.

I use those EP-10 carbon filters in my RO system also and they are good. They are carbon block style and they do last. The treatment mechanism between activated carbon and chlorine compounds does 'consume' the carbon material. Eventually, the carbon will be used up and it must be replaced. The Pentek site does state that this filter will remove the FREE chlorine in up to 6000 gallons of water at 1 gpm. Be aware that FREE means chlorine or hypochlorite. It specifically excludes the BOUND chlorine species such as chloramines. If your water supply has chloramines, then the 1 gpm criteria goes out the door. Then to get the desired chloramine removal, the flow rate has to be reduced to under 0.1 gpm. But the amount of water that the filter can treat should still remain consistent (6000 gal).

Understand that filter and system providers are going to provide conservative estimates of capacity and performance in this case since it means that they are going to sell more filter replacements. If you're interested in maximizing your dollars, you'll be testing and monitoring the performance of your system to assess when you really need to perform those replacements.

General Homebrew Discussion / Re: Wort vs water boil off rate?
« on: February 17, 2019, 03:32:24 PM »
The text and figures for a Zymurgy article on Wort Boiling was handed in last month and it should appear in an issue this summer. The bottom line is that brewers don't necessarily need to boil long or hard to make great beer.


2 cu ft is about 15 gallons.

15gal / 6 min is 2.5 gpm  If the flow is restricted to 2.5 gpm, then you should remove all chloramines.  For all others on this post, recognize that 2 cubic feet of activated carbon is A LOT.

General Homebrew Discussion / Re: Did my vote go through?
« on: February 16, 2019, 06:07:53 PM »
Be sure to vote for well-qualified candidates that YOU believe will represent your interests in this hobby. Read the candidates statements and make your decisions from there. Otherwise you'll end up with jokers like Goose and myself on your Governing Committee.  ;) 

PS: We're not in the running.


How does the size of the filter, and type of media affect this flow rate?

The size of the filter affects flow rate as presented in the following equation: The volume of MEDIA (cubic feet) in the filter unit divided by the flow rate (cubic feet per minute), is known as the Empty Bed Contact Time (minutes). To effectively remove chlorine (aka: hypochlorite), the contact time needs to be at least 2/3 minute. To effectively remove any of the chloramine compounds, the contact time needs to be at least 6 minutes. For the typical 10-inch carbon filter unit, that equates to needing the 1 and 0.1 gpm flow rates that I mentioned above. For the big carbon tank that you mention, that flow rate can be assessed by reconfiguring the formula above. Its obviously a much higher flow rate.

Loose or granular activated carbon (GAC) is less dense than the more modern carbon blocks that are now available to consumers for the 10- and 20-inch filter canisters. Therefore, carbon blocks are now preferred over GAC filters.

General Homebrew Discussion / Re: Wort vs water boil off rate?
« on: February 12, 2019, 09:19:55 PM »
BTU input and the surface area in the kettle are NOT the components that most directly influence evaporation rate. (OK, you do have to bring the wort to a boil)

All the evaporation equations I’ve seen include a factor that relates how much exchange there is between the high humidity zone (wort surface) and the low humidity zone (the atmosphere). You can boil the stuffing out of your wort, but if there is no exchange with the atmosphere, that steam is going to stay put. If the kettle is fully covered and there is no draft, the only evaporation loss is the steam that leaks around the lid. The amount of water leaving as steam is nearly equal to the condensate that reforms under that lid. That quantity is minor compared to what is lost if the lid is off and there is a breeze blowing across the kettle surface. So don’t forget the impact that atmospheric exchange plays in our boils.

General Homebrew Discussion / Re: Wort vs water boil off rate?
« on: February 12, 2019, 01:29:34 AM »
Unless you're brewing with a large percentage of pils malt, you don't need to boil off high percentages of your wort. Limiting the evaporation loss to around 8 to 10 percent is more than sufficient to make great beer without any DMS.

Equipment and Software / Re: Thermometer Recomendations
« on: February 10, 2019, 08:54:33 PM »
I have the Thermoworks RT600C. It doesn't respond as fast and isn't quite as accurate as the Thermapen.

Thermoworks is the Thermapen manufacturer, so you have some assurance that their less expensive products are still pretty good. In my opinion, buying Thermoworks' less expensive products are virtually equivalent to buying a Thermapen. I have several of their less expensive thermometers and check them regularly with my NIST-certified mercury thermometer and they are rock solid.

Save your bucks and buy the less expensive units. They are actually truly worth it.

Ingredients / Re: Water Question
« on: February 07, 2019, 12:30:39 PM »
Your water isn't terrible for brewing, but its not ideal for a Hefe. Dilution is the best way to bring that water into a better range for brewing that style.

Ingredients / Re: gypsum and calcium chloride usage
« on: February 04, 2019, 02:15:15 AM »
I and others have found that the Jever profile in Bru’n Water works well in a GP.

Ingredients / Re: gypsum and calcium chloride usage
« on: February 04, 2019, 01:36:40 AM »
As Denny points out, No Sulfate in European lagers is a total myth!!  It was proposed by one of my co-contributors on the Water book. It is not borne out by ANY data...just one person’s skewed and flawed perception. Noble or not, its false.

With that said, don’t go overboard with sulfate unless you want the beer finish to be drying.

All Grain Brewing / Re: Salt Additions
« on: February 04, 2019, 01:24:45 AM »
As long as the boil off evaporation isn’t excessive, planning your salt additions on the total water volume used is appropriate. If your practice is to boil off a lot of volume, then you may need to dial back the additions based on the final volume.

As Denny pointed out, brewing water doesn’t HAVE to contain a lot of calcium. That’s because malt delivers all the calcium that yeast need for their metabolism. I haven’t recommended a minimum of 25 ppm, since there isn’t a real need. But I have recommended a 40 ppm minimum in the mashing water. I often add all my batch’s calcium to the mashing water to get it to 40 ppm and then I let the straight RO sparging water dilute that down in the final wort.

Equipment and Software / Re: 3-piece ball valve alternatives
« on: January 26, 2019, 02:11:19 PM »
This is when a manometer plumbed into the bottom of the mash tun comes in handy. With the manometer reading, you can dial in exactly the flow rate your bed can handle. Minute turns of the valve can easily be seen in the manometer level.

All Grain Brewing / Re: Boil Kettle lid (screen)
« on: January 16, 2019, 12:13:59 AM »
There is no problem with having a lid on your kettle during portions of the boil. However the duration that the lid needs to be off the kettle does vary in accordance with the grist composition. While a maximum of about 30 minutes is all that is required to remove any existing DMS in your wort, the remainder of the boil period can be fully covered with no ill effect.

Covering the kettle is actually a useful measure for reducing heat stress on your wort. With the lid on, the heat input can be reduced. Any SMM in the wort is still converted to DMS at the same rate as a full open boil as long as your wort is still at boil temperature. As soon as you open the lid and resume a good rolling boil, the DMS will be expelled in about another 30 minutes.

While I understand your concern with stuff falling into the kettle, its better to reduce the evaporation for a portion of the boil duration. So placing a screen over the kettle isn't ideal for either the covered or uncovered stages of boiling since it allows atmospheric exchange of both too little and too much. You really want All or Nothing, not Sort Of or Semi.

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