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Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Patrick Rue
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:46:58 AM »
Dan asks:
I am wondering what it takes to open a small brewery. First, what size system is considered small or how many barrels would be small? I would rather do smaller batches so I could have more varieties to choose from, but not so small that there is no profit. Also, how easy would it be to expand if need be? Second, what is a rough estimate on start up costs (equipment and permits)?


Patrick answers:
The term "small brewery" has many meanings these days. Nanobreweries are becoming more common, and the startup microbrewery is also quite small.

Nano brewers are typically under 100 BBL per year and brew on a system of, let's say, 4 BBL, and often times 1 BBL or less. Nanobreweries are proving that they can be a start to a viable business by building a reputation with minimal investment, but in most cases nanobrewers aren't able to quit their day jobs as the revenue often doesn't leave enough cash to pay themselves at the end of the day. To start a nanobrewery, I've heard $50,000 - $150,000 in startup funds is sufficient as long as you're doing most of the construction yourself, and you still have a "day job". In my opinion, the best nanobrewery model is to sell everything in-house through a tasting room so the revenue is based on retail dollars, not sales to the distributor (or self-distributed). Of course some homework is involved to make sure the state / county / city you're in will allow this.

A microbrewery is brewery producing under 15,000 BBL per year, and most microbreweries are much smaller than this. The typical system size for a microbrewery will be 7-15 BBL, and well funded startups might have a 30 BBL system. A modest startup would be in the $500,000 range, and a well capitalized startup would be in the $1,500,000 range. The difference between these ranges is whether you're starting out with new or used equipment, the size of the system, whether you're able to do your own construction, whether you have a "day job" or not, how many employees you plan to have, how expensive your rent will be, and ultimately how much beer you intend to sell in the early years.

The more beer you can produce, the greater the scale of economy, the faster you can get to profitability, and the faster you can grow the business. On the other end, if you're not interested in fast growth but more of a lifestyle business, your business model should be getting profitable making the least amount of beer with the least amount of startup funds. It's easier to raise money in the first scenario than the second, though.

Hope this helps!

Patrick Rue
The Bruery

Ask the Experts / Ask the Experts: Patrick Rue
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:44:30 AM »
Patrick Rue started homebrewing in 2003 during his first year of law school, which ignited a passion for great beer and the creative process of brewing. He followed his passion and founded The Bruery, which began production in 2008. Celebrating its third year in business, Patrick's role at The Bruery has changed from doing just about everything to managing a company of 35 talented individuals. Recent accomplishments include opening The Bruery Provisions, a craft beer, wine and cheese store/tasting room in Old Towne Orange. The Bruery is distributed in 21 states and four countries. The Bruery strives to be a leading creative force in the craft brewing world.

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Sean Paxton
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:41:08 AM »
Ron asks:
What recipes and/or techniques do you recommend for grilling with beer? Do you have any favorite beers you pair with BBQ? From the citrusy notes of a quenching weissbier to the roasted flavors of a porter or stout, there is a broad spectrum of beer tastes suited for smoke.

This is a wonderful question that brings up lots of great discussion about pairing beer with food. I tend to look at what the food is, how it is cooked and what flavor attributes it picks up from the cooking process. BBQ is unique and oh so tasty, and the pairings are equally interesting and complex at the same time. Cooking with wood has many advantages, one being the flavor from the tree adding a wonderful component to the food on the grill or in the smoker. Using apple, cherry, fig, peach, maple, apricot, plum, or nectarine wood chips adds a sweeter, mellower smoke flavor to the food. Depending on the type of tree, the smoke flavor can range from a nutty, sweet, soft, or even perfume-like smoke flavor. These woods are great to use with pork, poultry, fish, and seafood, as the more mellow smoke is less dominating and easier to control in the final dish. Also, these woods are perfect to add layers of smoke complexity to a food. By alternating the type of wood each hour, it will pick up accents from each variety.

The more aggressive woods used in smoking are acacia, black walnut, hickory, oak (including oak barrel staves from wine, whiskey and brandy barrels), white oak, and mesquite. These woods have can have some bitterness that comes from the smoke’s astringent nature and the flavors range from strong to intense. The subtleness is mostly lost with these woods as the dominant smoke character will overshadow the delicate nuances of simple flavored proteins and cheeses. These woods work well when combined with other softer flavored woods to create a balance smoked flavor. A strong full-flavored rub with lots of spice and pepper undertones, layered with sugar can also create a balance. With the understanding of the flavor components of the wood selected for the BBQ, a cook can tweak the cooking time or combination of wood, to adjust and control the amount of smoke flavor added to a dish.

The pairing aspect becomes much broader when taking into consideration the wood type, cooking time and selected protein. I love a rauchbier because of its smoky and spice qualities, which is offset by a sweet malt backbone and a undertone of a meaty, jerky flavor. This beer would pair well with some grilled meats. A smoked porter has more malty and roasted elements and can have different degrees of smoke flavor depending upon the type of smoked malt and the amount used. Take caution when thinking about the BBQ pairing because the smoke on smoke can overwhelm the pairing and your palate.

A scotch ale or wee heavy, with a sweet caramel, toffee and slight smoke nuances would add balance to a heavily smoked piece of BBQ and might be too aggressive of a pairing choice for a grilled selection. Another angle of pairing would be to use the roast coffee, chocolate, nutty, and earthy (umami) approach that many styles of beers bring to your palate. Think of an amber, brown ale, stout (Irish, imperial or oatmeal), porter (American or English), German alt, schwarzbier, or even red ale styles can complement the smoke elements while adding a unique malt sweetness that adds a contrasting juxtaposition to the match.

When looking at the citrus flavors in many beers, the citrus flavor is usually coming from either hops or the addition of citrus (zest, fresh or dried) or coriander. This leaves a distinct citrus element on your palate and creates an interesting pairing with smoke. The lighter smoked foods like grilled vegetables, fish or poultry, will add brightness to the pairing when combined with a West Coast style American Pale Ale, Pale Ale, IPA, or in some cases a Double IPA. An issue might arise with the alcohol percentage, as the heat of the beer’s ABV might dilute the subtle delicate flavors of the food. Barleywines, wheat wines and dopplebocks will work with the stronger, smokier foods.

Wheat beers can work with a smoky BBQ, but the key is having the right smoke or grill flavors. Some of the German styles that are heavy with clove or banana can create some strange pairings and aren't my favorite. Dunkelweizen and hefeweizen lend themselves to more delicate foods like a grilled chicken breast or grilled zucchini. The clove flavor has a phenolic attribute that comes from the yeast, and doesn't always mix well with an astringent smoke flavor. I like a softer smoke character when pairing with these beers.

In the lager category, Vienna, Oktoberfest/Märzen, bock and other dark lagers, add some maltiness to the pairing and have a lower hop bitterness that makes these beers more neutral and work with food easier.

With these pairings the real trick to a 'perfect pairing' is finding the balance between the food and the beer. The combination of the right beer to the right food should elevate the combination to a 1 + 1 = 3. Even beers within a style in today's brews (both home and commercial beers) are pushing the boundaries of the style guidelines. Each beer we brew, we can add or modify the flavor profile with the addition of different grains, unique ingredients or flavorful hops. This strikes the notion of starting with the beer first, then thinking about what to cook and how to season it. Think of smoke as a seasoning, just like the rub, and the brine or the side dishes served with your entrée. Using some of the above mentioned beers, substitute the liquid in the entrée (stock, water) with a beer to enhance the flavor of the dish and will allow the pairing to be a more natural fit. When adding a beer to a dish, think of that beer as an ingredient. Dissect the flavors in the beer: start with the malt to hop balance, and the first, second and third flavors that hit your palate. Then think of the style and what that beer will go with and how to incorporate those flavors to compliment or contrast the flavors in the dish. This will add a level of sophistication to the pairing by not only designing your dish around the beer, but embracing the beer’s flavor profile and using it in your recipe.

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Sean Paxton
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:37:05 AM »
Ryan from Colorado asks:
Any thoughts on a beer dinner in Denver around GABF this year? I live in Denver and would love to experience a Sean Paxton dinner.

Now to the food questions. I do quite a bit of cooking (all the cooking for my household) and manage to pull off most recipes, but am by no means anywhere near a professional (just a house husband who loves his food and beer). I have some homebrew friends coming over for a beer dinner and wanted to see if you would be willing to give any input on my idea for a recipe. I am planning on making a boeuf bourguignon, using the Julia Child style recipe, but replacing the red wine with barley wine. I am thinking of using the 2011 Sierra Nevada Bigfoot for the barley wine. I was also thinking of making a hop-butter and using that to cook the mushrooms and onions, and possibly using some hop-butter with mashed potatoes for plating.

So the question is will the young barley wine and hop-butter play well together. I figured the concentrated barley wine sweetness would balance the hop bitterness in the barley wine well. I don’t expect to get much bitterness extraction in the hop-butter, just flavor and aroma.

Also I was wondering if you had pairing suggestions other than a barley wine. Sadly, I don’t have any aged barley wine to pair with this, but perhaps a Belgian dark, or something similar might go well. I have a homebrew chocolate stout on tap that may be nice with this, but that is what we will be drinking, so I was hoping for something special as a pairing (my local liquor store is well stocked with craft beer).

I look forward to more episodes on the Beer Network and hope to try one of your multi-course beer dinners one day. Nothing is better than a long drawn out meal of great food, especially with good beer and good people to appreciate it with.

Sean answers:
Dinner in Denver during GABF, hmmm, interesting idea. No plans today, but we will see.

As for your cooking question, I see a few things to consider. On the boeuf bourguignon idea, this dish is usually made with a red wine like a Bordeaux, Burgundy or Chianti. Using a very hoppy brew like Sierra Nevada Bigfoot will totally change the classic flavor profile of the original dish. Wine tannins have a different flavor profile than hop bitterness, not to mention the lack of fruity undertones that the wine brings to the dish. One of the issues I have had with cooking with barleywine is the IBU level in this style of beer. As most barleywines are full of flavor, the amount of hops used to balance out the sweetness from all the barley malt create a wonderful brew to drink, yet cause issues when cooking with them. The bitterness increases when you make a beer reduction because the hop oils condense as the alcohol and water evaporate during the cooking process. This leaves more bitterness and less sweetness as the dish cooks. This bitterness evolves from a pleasant, quaffable hop flavor to a sharp bitterness that is out of balance.

If you want something close to the classic Julie Child dish, I would use a Rodenbach Grand Cru, Jolly Pumpkin’s La Roja or a Flanders Red style ale. This style of beer has some vinegar notes, along with some dried fruit complexity and a dry finish, with minimal hop bitterness. These flavors would work well with the original recipe’s ingredients. With the onions, bacon, beef, and mushrooms, the addition of the beer will enhance the dish and not distract from it, adding other flavor elements that clash on the palate.

Hop-butter is a condiment/ingredient that I continue to explore and experiment with in my cooking. When I create hop-butter I infuse the hop flavor into the butter using indirect heat (water bath, or double boiler) versus an open heat source to keep the bitterness to a minimum. I would suggest using the butter as a finishing component to the dish to add richness and flavor versus directly cooking your mushrooms and onions in the butter which might lead to excess bitterness in your dish.

I can see adding a barleywine to mashed potatoes, as it is a great way to add flavor and not really “cook” the beer. It’s a good compensation for the bitterness when this type of beer is reduced down. I have a recipe for Roasted Garlic IPA Mashed Potatoes and the barleywine could replace the IPA. The sweetness of the roasted garlic works well to add balance to the bitterness of the beer, while bringing out the flavor of the hops in the dish.

I really appreciate your questions and love the idea of taking a traditional dish and exploring how to personalize it for your friends and family. I encourage you to keep experimenting!

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Sean Paxton
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:34:20 AM »
Denny asks:
Thanks for answering our questions! I'd like to know if you have any thoughts on great flavor combinations that we may not normally think of or expect to taste. Both in flavors in beers and in pairing beer and food, what are some of your favorites that you think more people need to be aware of?

Thank you so much!

Sean answers:
Great question. Flavor combinations are so unique and really are the foundation of so many great dishes and beers. If you stop and examine a dish, many start with some base ingredients, whether it be onions, peppers, garlic, ginger, or peppercorns to build a flavor profile. The important thing to think about is how these ingredients are blended together and the technique used to bring out the flavors.

This theory applies to beer as well. For most recipes, the base ingredients are water, malt (kilned different ways to achieve different flavors), hops, and yeast. This is also where the complexity of beer becomes unique. Look at a hefeweizen with the banana and clove component coming from the Bavarian yeast strain, a saison with its red wine yeast cousin with ester and spicy notes, a stout with its heavily roasted grains, or a pilsner with the clean yeast profile that allows the noble hops to shine. How we treat the brew can bring out flavors that are unique and special. If you take into consideration the many different cuisines from across the globe, you can find many unique flavor combinations that could be re-created in a beer. A word of caution however, when creating a brew with unique flavors or ingredients, you should always ask one simple question, "Will I be able to drink a pint, growler or keg of this beer?"

I recently had a saison style brew that was made with Japanese Yuzu, a unique citrus that has undertones of lime, lemon, tangerine, and orange. This combination was delicate and thirst quenching. I also had a Star Anise Chocolate Stout that had just enough of the anise flavor without overwhelming the palate. The anise was dancing with the roasted, earthy, intense fudgy flavors from the chocolate, which served as the foundation of the rich and creamy stout. These beers tasted great, as the addition of the other non-native beer ingredients were added with a light and delicate touch that expands the flavor bandwidth. A heavy hand can leave the palate confused, overwhelmed or muted and muddled. It is not just the idea of marrying ingredients, but how they are layered into a beer to give it complex flavor that is complimenting the base ingredients, not becoming so strong that it takes over the taster’s palate.

Exploring the idea of flavor combinations even further, think about what has worked in food and beers and those classic flavor pairings. There is a sense of comfort with nostalgic flavors and textures that can trigger memories. The hard part is finding that equilibrium of flavors that compliment each other.

With the above pre-text, here are some ideas I would love to see introduced into the flavor profile of a beer. Remember, to create synergy in the beer you need to not only think about the flavors, but the beer style that will support those flavors. Here are a few thoughts:
  • Green tea and tangerine
  • Dark chocolate, chili and blood orange
  • Smoked heirloom tomato and basil
  • Bacon and maple syrup
  • Strawberry and coriander
  • Pineapple and apricot
  • Chocolate, caramel and sea salt

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Sean Paxton
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:29:29 AM »
Andy asks:
I can't remember where this restaurant is located (we were traveling), but I remember they included a garnish of grilled lemon, orange and grapefruit wedges that was wonderful. Each fruit retained its distinct flavor but had a smoky "deeper, darker" layer to it, which I’m guessing was from the caramelized sugars?

I would love these flavors in a Belgian beer. What are your thoughts about the flavors grilled fruits can add to a beer?

Thanks for making yourself available to the homebrew community.

Sean answers:
Grilled citrus is a wonderful addition to any meal in replacement of a slice of citrus on the plate. By adding the heat from the grill (along with any smoky or charcoal flavors) can impart a very special flavor that can enhance any meal.

I really like your idea of using this grilled citrus in a brew. I can totally see a Belgian Wit with oranges (navel, blood or Valencia), tangerines (honey, clementine or mandarin) or grapefruit (ruby, pink or pomelo) being a nice accompaniment. My recommendation would be to halve, then grill over an almond, cherry, apple, or pecan wood over direct heat for 3-4 minutes on the cut side. Then flip, and grill on the skin side for about a minute. Move to the side of the grill without direct heat and cover to allow the citrus to pick up the smoke from the wood. Some moisture will evaporate, thereby condensing the flavors of the citrus. Add these to the last five minutes of the boil. This same technique would also work well with a saison, blonde or even a hefeweizen as well. The hard thing with citrus and this technique in particular, is the amount. Citrus doesn't always contain the same brix or sugar content and will certainly have different moisture levels and sizes. You may have to experiment with the grill time and temperature of the grill. Although, by adding these flavors to a brew, one could create a very special summertime treat.

Great idea, I might have to steal this in an upcoming menu or brew...

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Sean Paxton
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:25:37 AM »
Danny from Florida asks:
I love what you do on the Brewing Network, and can't wait to taste one of your meals some time in the future. Hopefully there will be an NHC in a Southeastern state soon! Thanks for this opportunity to pick your brain over a couple of things!

My first question centers on brewing additives and by-products, and how they may be integrated into a meal. For instance, do those water salts we add to our all-grains beers, like gypsum or calcium chloride, modify the flavor or cooked meals similar to the way they affect beer flavor? Could they be used as flavor enhancers, similar to standard table salt? Additionally, in the quest for increased sustainability, what are some uses for spent grains, spent hops and yeast/trub cakes that are left behind in the bottom of the fermenter? Are there any food applications for any of these things (other than the old spent grain bread), or should they simply be composted after use. I know autolyzed yeast is a common ingredient in processed foods, hence my question.

One final question pertains to the growing of hops. It has been the experience of many gardeners in Florida that hops just don't grow very well in this state, rarely yielding sufficient quantities to be of use in brewing. Their quality is also sub-optimal due to the soils, climate and overall growing conditions down here. I have heard that the shoots of the hops as they emerge in the spring are similar to asparagus and considered a delicacy in some parts of the world. Do you have any recommendations on planting rhizomes for harvesting these shoots, how many rhizomes are needed for a small family meal, and how to cook them?

Thank you so much!

Sean answers:
You have asked some excellent questions. I too have been thinking and playing around with some of the other brewing ingredients that sometimes get forgotten and just thrown out, such as the grain, yeast slurry and hops.

I love salt, and my first comment to address your question is that salt does more than just add salinity to food. It also brings its unique mineral compound and texture to the dish. There are finishing salts that can add texture, color, trace minerals, and flavor (smokiness to herbs and citrus) to a finished dish by sprinkling them over the top of an item and not using them in the actual preparation of a dish. These salts differ than sea or kosher salt that should be used more as a cooking salt. However, using brewing salts/minerals in food preparation is tricky. First, if these minerals are overused, your palate can develop a chalky sensation. There are some breweries that overuse these brewing salts, and leave a harsh or gritty coating in your mouth.

Additionally, I am intrigued by how the water chemistry adds its unique seasoning to the finished product of a brew, complimenting the hops or the malt. In some cases it produces a beer that can't be replicated any other way. I have been playing with BeerSmith (homebrewing software) to create 1 gallon jugs of water that have been modified to resemble water profiles of certain areas. Then I use that water to make stocks, pasta dough, bread dough, and soup to understand how these water styles affect food through the cooking process. The addition of gypsum and calcium chloride also change the pH of the water, and this too should be taken under consideration when using them in food preparation. Use caution, as a little goes a long way here. Try experimenting with a control recipe with distilled water, then a second with the modified water and see if you can taste the difference. We all know that adding Burton-on-Trent salts to a British Pale creates a unique and classic flavor that can't be replicated by simply adding English malts and hops to a recipe.

In regards to the by-product of brewing ingredients, we seem to be thinking along the same lines. Often times, spent grain is given or sold to farmers from breweries as feed to farm animals. I have contacted Brewers Supply Group and asked for a breakdown of what is left in spent grain versus just the grain itself and was surprised at the answer. It led me to plan not only my brew day, but also my cooking day. If you like bread, sourdough or other more rustic/artisan styles, try substituting 1/4 - 1/5 of the flour with spent grain and then cutting back slightly on the water (the modified water can be used here), as the moisture content of the spent grain is hard to measure and keep at a constant. This will add a wonderful texture to the bread. Mix and knead this dough, placing in the refrigerator overnight and then baking the next day to slow the yeast down and create more flavors in the bread. I have a recipe for spent grain crackers that is very easy to make after a brew day, and the added spent grain becomes a strong element in the finished cracker. You can also use the spent grain in granola, adding texture and flavor to your breakfast. Another way to add more flavors to the spent grain is by adding some regular grain back into the granola or bread; even just a few teaspoons or tablespoons will add to the complexity and flavor, especially if using a caramel or kilned malt. Another breakfast favorite that works with spent grain is oatmeal. Add some frozen spent grain (to stop any spoilage) or dried spent grain (place onto a parchment or lined sheet tray in a thin layer and place into a 200˚F oven for several hours until dried) to your oatmeal, along with a touch of freshly cracked malt or DME/LME to create a wonderful and unique brewers breakfast. The frozen or dried spent grain can also be used in pancakes, waffles and quick breads (muffins/loaves). Just think about what type of grains were mixed in the style of beer you made and how those flavors will be incorporated to the final dish.

For spent hops, I have yet to find a way to use these, as much of their flavor has been sacrificed in the brewing process and the only thing that is really left is the leafy material that isn't very tasty. I would suggest listening to my podcast for more ideas and techniques on this topic.

Spent yeast is another story. If you are a clean brewer and dump the trub, the yeast can be re-used for another batch of your homebrew. Using this yeast to make bread, flatbread or other yeast items is definitely possible. The trick is not to have a lot of hopped trub mixed into the yeast slurry that can be found when a brewer uses pelletized hops and not using a whirlpool or a hop sack, thus keeping these bitter elements out of the yeast. The other consideration that I can share from lots of R&D is that each stain of yeast that is used in the brew house is different than instant active yeast from a packet. Depending upon the strain, the amount used and time needed to raise the loaf of bread it will be longer than the commercial yeast equivalent. You can add wort to replace water and to help feed the yeast and speed up the process, but the brewers yeast has not been modified or mutated to be fed a starch (flour), and will take longer and the results are not always consistent. Vegemite, produced in Australia, is a yeast by-product spread with a very unique flavor. Not everyone’s cup of tea for a spread on toast. However, you can take a hop free yeast slurry and cook it down a little, and then add this to soups, stocks and other sauces to give a 'meaty' and 'beefy' flavor that is different than adding bouillon or other flavor builders.

You can always compost the spent grain, hops and yeast, and mix in other organic materials to create a very rich soil. I will warn that the aroma of spent grain and yeast slurry decomposing in
the backyard can become rather strong. If you have ever visited a brewery with bins awaiting a farmer’s pick up, you can attest that this is a very strong aroma. Not always as pleasant as roses and herds in the rest of the garden.

For your question on hop shoots, yes they are a delicacy. During spring in Belgium, the first hop shoots are harvested and cooked much like white asparagus and served at many fine restaurants. The trick to doing this at home is two-fold. First, you have to have enough to serve your guests. I would suggest eight plants for a small intimate dinner. Second, once the hop rhizomes are planted, cover the soil with straw or moss, keeping the direct sunlight off the first bines that break ground. The idea is to keep the shoots white and keeping the sun from turning them green. This will keep them tender. The shoots should be harvested when they are about 2-4 inches long. To prepare them, remove the leaves (as they can be spiny) and sauté in a little butter for just a few minutes over medium heat. A few years ago, Brian Hunt of Moonlight Brewery let me pick his first shoots for a Belgium Beer Dinner at the Toronado in San Francisco. I created a Delirium Tremens Sabayon by whisking 4 egg yolks with about a 1/4 cup of the Delirium, adding a touch of salt over a double boiler. I whisked the mix for 2-4 minutes, until it tripled in volume and became a frothy, slightly thick sauce. Be careful not to over-mix as it can curdle. The trick is to whisk and watch the yolks cook slowly. I poured this sauce over the sautéed hop shoots and served over a beer poached fish. This is a tasty seasonal treat that really can only happen once a year.

Thanks for the great questions and sharing your ideas and thoughts.

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Sean Paxton
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:17:50 AM »
Brady asks:
I am going to be throwing a beer vs. wine food pairing party for my 30th B-Day coming up. I have some friends that are more or less wine snobs and some friends that really only drink the fizzy yellow beers; and I want to show how well good craft beers can pair with food and taste delicious. The plan is to pair a beer and a wine with each course. Everyone will vote which they thought paired best with each course and at the end we will total up the votes to see which one paired best overall. I was wondering if you may have some tips on what beers may pair best with each course. The menu is themed around Japanese steakhouse food.

There are so many options that I didn't quite know what might work. I have also been trying to get some tips from the wine communities online and haven't had much luck (they don't seem as open and friendly as the homebrew community). Would you maybe also know some wine pairings that might work? I appreciate any tips or advice. Thanks so much. Cheers!

Sean answers:
I love this idea of not only having some great beers and wines, but putting them next to each other for your friends to become more educated with different beer styles that work well with Asian style food.

For your pairings, here are a few ideas that might wow your friends and family:

1) Grilled veggie sushi rolls (asparagus, red bell pepper, zucchini, carrot)
  • I would go with a Belgium Wit/White, Saison or a Helles Bock as these brews have a nice complimentary flavor. They won’t overpower the grilled veggies, while adding to the complexity of the pairing with the orange peel/coriander in the Wit, the spicy esters in the Saison and the clean malt backbone of the Helles.
  • You might want to try using Dogfish Head’s Palo Santo as a dipping sauce, as the umami in this beer can be a good substitute for soy sauce due to the complex wood barrel used to age this beer.
  • Try adding a sour ale, like a Gueuze, Lambic or American Sour in the preparation for the sushi rice instead of the rice vinegar that is mixed with sugar and 'cut' into the cooked rice. This will strengthen the beer pairing, allowing the malt and fermentation of the brew to compliment the sushi.

2) Miso soup with tofu
  • Miso is a fermented barley, rice or soybean product. This soup is comprised of complex flavors that are simple in nature and heightened with the addition of tofu, green onions and the dashi made with smoke fish flakes, giving some umami flavor to the dish. To pair with these flavors you can go with an English Brown Ale or Mild. The body of the brew has a touch of sweetness along with the malt complexity, creating a unique blend of flavors, including a touch of roast that enhances the fermented miso well.

3) Chicken marinated with soy sauce, ginger, scallions, oranges, and garlic
  • Considering the combinations of soy sauce, ginger, orange, and garlic, this pairing becomes complicated. The flavors are strong individually, but together combine to cast a broad flavor range over the palate. To pair, a hoppy Pale Ale with lots of citrus notes would complement the flavors in the dish, while a Dunkelweizen or Hefeweizen with the essence of clove and banana would contrast and add its unique flavor. Poultry is a simple protein, and will readily absorb the flavors of the marinade. These beer choices are careful to not add more complexity to the flavor profile, but give respect to the overall dish.

4) Tri-Tip marinated with soy sauce, ginger, scallions, oranges, and garlic
  • Beef has a trace flavor of iron and a richness that chicken does not, so the beer choices for this protein are different. Try an Altbier with this pairing, and because of the malt forward flavors, it will play up the umami from the soy sauce, especially if the meat is grilled. Another German style that would be unique with this pairing is a Roggenbier. The rye malt will leave a slight sourness and spiciness that when combined with the ginger and the garlic will enhance these flavors. The slight fruitiness in the finish will not increase the spicy notes and will clean the palate for another bite.

5) Green tea ice cream with a piece of dark chocolate and pistachio nut bark
  • Ahhh green tea. An overall delicate tea with very interesting flavor. Bitterness and astringency are dominant along with slight floral hints and a nutty component. When you add in the element of pistachio nut bark, it will increase the nutty component while the dark chocolate pieces will further increase the nut and roast elements, slightly increasing the tannins from the unfermented leaves. I would go with a more delicate beer for this pairing, as a full-bodied, full-flavored brew will overshadow the delicate dessert. Try a Wheat wine, with its hints of vanilla, honey and light caramel, these flavors will broaden the dessert flavors and add new levels of complexity. They should embrace the coolness given from the ice cream that numbs the palate. Another style that would be interesting in this setting would be an Eisbock. The dried fruit undertones of raisin, plum, vanilla, apple and, banana, it again will add a counterpoint to the flavors in the dessert and not overpower them.

Combining these dishes with the above brews will not only pair well with the Asian style food of your menu, but also help your guests become more knowledgeable about beer offerings from around the globe and expose them to unique flavors that wine, sake and spirits do not have.

Happy Birthday and enjoy!

Ask the Experts / Ask the Experts: Sean Paxton
« on: March 15, 2013, 10:00:45 AM »
Sean Z. Paxton is the Executive Chef and Owner of, where he creates, cooks and serves multiple course menus highlighting beer as an essential ingredient. He writes for Beer Advocate Magazine, DRAFT Magazine and is a guest author for variety of other food and beer magazines. Sean hosts a monthly podcast “The Home Brewed Chef” on The Brewing Network and shares with listeners’ philosophies, techniques and ideas for cooking and pairing with beer. His travels take him to breweries throughout the U.S. and Europe where he utilizes his beer and flavor knowledge to collaborate with craft brewers to create beer recipes used typically for specialty events and releases.

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Stan Hieronymus
« on: March 15, 2013, 09:55:27 AM »
Paul asks:
I'm a big Stella Artois fan. I'm wondering what grain bill and yeast to use in trying to replicate this incredible beer.

Stan answers:
Sorry, Paul, but I do not have any firsthand knowledge about Belgian lagers. My understanding is that the recipe includes mostly pilsner malt with a portion of rice and corn. I do not know about the yeast. Again, I am sorry not to have more details.

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Stan Hieronymus
« on: March 15, 2013, 09:54:59 AM »
David from Florida asks:
What is the best yeast and temperature combination to get the Belgian spice flavor without adding spices? I have tried several combinations but have not found the right one yet. Could it also be more dependent on grain, hop and water choices? Do you have any recommendations to get there?

Also, I have heard rumors of Orval being offered on tap, but only behind the monastery doors. Have you had the opportunity to try this and what did you think of it?

Stan answers:
Every one of the factors you mention can contribute, but if you can brew enough batches and change just one factor (be it an ingredient or one part of the process) at a time you should be able to find the balance you want. That spice flavor you are looking results from a phenol known as 4-vinyl guaiacol, the same phenol that gives German hefeweizens their unique clove-like aromas and flavors.

Most yeasts sourced from Belgian monasteries, Rochefort is the exception, produce pretty high levels of 4-vg. You can promote this even more with a 10-minute rest at 113-115° F, which is what German brewers do while making hefeweizens, although this really shouldn’t be necessary. Beyond the production of 4-vg, of course, is the matter of perception. If you restrain fermentation temperature throughout you’ll limit ester production, which will promote the perception of spice (clove).

The challenge is finding the balance, because you want plenty of fruity esters. Additionally, production of esters, higher alcohols (more of the aromas/flavors you expect in these beers) and proper attenuation all go hand in hand. That’s why pitching in the range of 62° F to 64° F and letting the temperature rise naturally (heat created during fermentation) seems to work so well.

Yes, Orval is served (don’t know if it is all the time) on tap at the monastery. The excitement of drinking it there (“Hey, look at me, I’m drinking draft Orval”) makes taking any proper sensory notes impossible. If you cannot enjoy the “halo effect” in a monastery where might you enjoy it?

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Stan Hieronymus
« on: March 15, 2013, 09:54:23 AM »
Nathan asks:
I'm brewing my first wit soon and wanted any advice you might be able to give to a wit newbie. I have been brewing all-grain ales and lagers for a number of years, but this will be my first wheat beer of any kind. I have used wheat as an adjunct in some of my ales in the past. What I'm working with is raw wheat and torrified wheat. The torrified wheat is made at home using an air popper and gets sorted into two categories: light torrified and dark torrified. I have a smack pack of Wyeast 3942 Belgian Wheat on hand. I'm planning on adding some grapefruit zest but wonder when it is best to do that. Any other advice that is specific to the making of a wit would be appreciated.

Stan answers:
Pierre Celis, who “saved” the Belgian white style, had many clever ways of explaining why you should add your zest and any spices at flame out. My favorite: “Everything else is for the neighbors (because it goes up the chimney).” You don’t mention the amount of wheat you will be using, but take care in sparging. You probably don’t need to add rice hulls, but sparging at 172° F should make your runoff easier. If you want a cloudier looking beer consider a rest at 122° F or adding a table spoon of flour (for a 5-gallon batch) during the boil.

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Stan Hieronymus
« on: March 15, 2013, 09:53:37 AM »
Nathan from Denver asks:
From reading BLAM, I know that the clear sugar/invert is basically interchangeable with dextrose or sucrose, but I have a few questions about dark candi syrup. Is there such a thing as "authentic" dark candi syrup, or are there a lot of different syrups being used? Do the different Trappist and secular breweries all use the same syrups, or are they custom made for each brewery or recipe? Do you know if they are made in-house or from a third party manufacturer?

I'm not interested in creating an exact clone of any Belgian beer, but there seems to be a lot of misunderstanding of this subject in the homebrew community. People think there is "black magic" involved. I have found very little hard information on the subject, so any insight you could provide would be great.

Stan Answers:
“Authentic” seems to cause particular confusion when it comes to monastery-brewed beers. Every Trappist brewery in Belgium has made many changes in process in recent years, even since BLAM was published. Things certainly have changed since the 1920s when Westmalle began using what was referred to as “candi sugar,” but was in fact what we would call dark syrup. Does the fact that a brewery would change vendors over time make it less authentic?

But specifically, no, there is no single vendor. The companies that make the syrup do much more business with confectionary manufacturers. Literally at the same time that BLAM was working its way through the final stages of production Brian Mercer was tracking down syrups to import and the result was Dark Candi Inc. I wouldn’t call it “black magic” but I’ve since tasted many American-brewed beers that have the same rich, rummy character you find in a beer from Rochefort, and those beers included Dark Candi in the recipe. As Randy Mosher has pointed out in his own books, and in providing a syrup recipe for BLAM, you can make your own dark syrup. You can also experiment with less refined sugars from specialty grocers. For example there is a Mexican grocery near me that sells a sugar with distinct rummy notes.

Ask the Experts / Ask the Experts: Stan Hieronymus
« on: March 15, 2013, 09:52:26 AM »
Stan Hieronymus is a professional journalist and amateur brewer who has made beer his beat since 1993. The editor at, he's written hundreds of articles for periodicals, co-authored four books with his wife, Daria Labinsky, written Brewing with Wheat and Brew Like a Monk for Brewers Publications and contributed to several other publications, including 1001 Beers You Must Taste Before You Die. His travels have taken him to breweries in every state in the country as well as behind the scenes in internationally famous breweries such as De Sint-Sixtusadij Westvleterten and Private Weissbierbrauerei G. Schneider & Sohn.

Ask the Experts / Re: Ask the Experts: Chris White & Jamil Zainasheff
« on: March 15, 2013, 09:49:38 AM »
Jeremy from Pennsylvania asks:
My question is as follows: I understand that one should control temperatures during active fermentation to not disturb the yeast through either rising or falling temperatures, or through a fluctuation of both. What I'm still a little confused about is how long should one control fermentation temperatures for. Do I control fermentation temperatures for active, conditioning, secondary phases, or all of the above?

I have only one temperature controller and one electronic heat blanket to keep temperatures warm enough in these colder winter temperatures (I also now have a fridge for the summer months). Please note that I live in South Philly and do all my fermenting in the basement where temperatures can go down to around 60ºF (or up to 75ºF in the summer). Most of my ale recipes, and the suggested yeast optimal temperature ranges, are within the 65ºF-70ºF degree range. Therefore, I've been shooting for a target fermentation at around 68ºF. If I'm doing successive batches, how long should I plan on using temperature control on any one actively fermenting carboy before I remove the controller and place it on the next batch? In addition, will any carboys that received active temp control be subject to any yeast "harm" during the conditioning phase once the controller has been removed?

In one calendar week over holiday break, I brewed three of Northern Brewers' extract kit batches and I did my first mead. I'm curious if perhaps I was a little too ambitious and I'm wondering if next time I should actively control fermentation temps all the way through one batch before moving onto the next.

Thanks for your help and insight!

Chris and Jamil answer:
Ideally you want to control your beer/fermentation temperature at all times. Every phase of fermentation and even beer storage is important. Allowing the temperature to freely rise or fall can sometimes work fine and at other times may cause issues with your beer. In general, rising temperatures during fermentation are better than falling temperatures, so if you can achieve that without the controller, then it would be less of an issue.

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