I think I've at least tried them all. BeerTools Pro is by far my favorite.
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I'm not a microbiologist, but, do yeast produce a significant amount of CO2 during aerobic metabolism?
I'm not in agreement with Denny on the starter gravity. In talking with Chris White (White Labs) many years ago, he said they culture their yeast using a much lower gravity wort. He indicated about 1.020, but I see that in his new yeast book, he mentions 1.030 as a prefered starter gravity. The issue of the Crabtree Effect is more pronounced when you increase the wort gravity, which diverts some yeast metabolic effort into alcohol production instead of yeast mass growth.
Martin's comment about keeping the flask headspace purged with air makes a lot of sense to me. I would think that even with foil or foam plug you would otherwise tend to have a nice blanket of CO2 on top of the liquid.
Unless otherwise noted, hardness and alkalinity are always given as ppm as CaCO3 here in the US.
Will do. This first batch LHBS talked me into a bucket. Next batch will be in a carboy so I can see what's going on. I don't like the idea of pulling the lid on it.......
For you to get it as low as you want you would have to get 83% attenuation which is not possible with this yeast strain.
With that in mind let me ask this: If these security measures were in place prior to 9/11 would things of happened the way they did?