Lactobacillus is a facultative anaerobe, so it can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. I think the main difference is that in this study, they used pressured tubes to prevent oxygen from entering and forced the Lactobacillus to grow anaerobically. The growth rate of bugs during fermentation is significantly reduced, as ATP production from anaerobic respiration is up to 100 times lower than aerobic respiration. In our examples, we are using stir plates aeration devices in our starters (usually), where oxygen is infused continuously, which allows for greater growth rates.
My experience with Lacto is limited to homebrew use, but with in 24 hours I generally see a lot of growth in stir plate starters, but I do not have any cell counts to back it up. In our lab, we work with all kinds of environmental bacteria, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Mycobacterium, etc., and we have no problem growing up cultures with 1-2 million cells per ml overnight, just starting from a very small starting inoculum.