Thanks to all for the great info! To add some of the requested details.
1.) The boil looked completely normal, no floaters.
2.) I did only ferment for 7 days. OG was 1.050 FG was 1.012. Took the lid off the pail and saw the floaters. I record these things in a little notebook, but I did not take pictures. next time for sure!
3.) The floaters themselves were pale yellow, round in shape, about 2mm or so at their largest. Once I put the beer into secondary, most of the debris/floaters fell away to the bottom within 3 days. I just racked what I could safely into a pail with a spigot for bottling and left about 1 gal in the carboy so as not to put any floaters in the bottle.
4.) 1 tsp Irish moss went into the wort with 15 mins left. I did rehydrate it first in water.
Next time for sure I'll let the fermentation start cooler, go longer, and be more patient.