As far as building systems (as opposed to refrigeration) it's pretty common to have a system that uses cool outside air to modulate interior temps and minimize A/C in the "shoulder" months when seasons are changing. You can also use a heat exchanger to recover heat from exhaust air to pre-heat intake and reduce heating costs.
Not so common in residential (single family) uses. At least in my experience.
In the bigger picture, trying to do this for a household refrigerator would require automation, duct work, etc. that would probably make it not cost effective. Today's energy star appliances are pretty efficient.
I do like to use outside cold air to cool soups, chili, or whatever needs to go into the fridge. I would worry about leaving those outside overnight what with the squirrels and racoons. I'm not sure how active possum are in the winter, but we've got too many of those, too.