Public transit in Indy IS a cab, my friend...
If you're taking a beer tour, head to the Broad Ripple area:
Twenty Tap: Great food and the best tap selection/curation in Indy. It has been my local watering hole since it opened (or was - I recently relocated to St. Louis). Most of the bartenders are awesome people that love beer (and love to talk about it). The owner (former brewer at Broad Ripple Brew Pub) is now brewing his "Underground" series in the basement.
Brugge: Awesome Flemish and French-inspired pub food. Cod crepe and Frites will not disappoint. Charcuterie and cheese plate is the largest I've ever seen and usually includes AMAZING products from Smoking Goose, the local sausage maker. Its also a brewpub that brews a variety of nice Belgian beers. I would skip their pales/IPA and go for something Belgian-inspired.
Broad Ripple Brew Pub: Indiana's first brewpub. Puts out the English vibe in its beer, cuisine, and decor. Their Monon Porter is the best Brown Porter I've ever had, and its usually served (properly) from a cask.
Three Wisemen: Another brewpub in the area, owned by Indiana franchise Scotty's Brewhouse. Most of their food/beer is just 'okay', but its worth stopping in for their Pale Ale (awesome west-coast style), especially if its on cask. Their Hubbard & Cravens (Coffee) Porter is also very nice. Usually they have a cask of something creative and interesting, but you have to ask for it.
Triton Brewing Co. has a (very) small tap room on the strip. Its called Triton Tap. I love their stout and their Belgian Pale (and most of their seasonals).
Chumley's: On the Broad Ripple strip. Its a great list of taps (esp if you're looking for 3 Floyds), and Thursday is Schooner night. Watch college basketball and drink Dreadnaught/APW. Root for Purdue. You're taking a cab anyway, right?
If you're staying downtown:
If your company card has some wiggle room, St. Elmo's is one of the best steakhouses in America. Shrimp Cocktail, Dry-aged beef, and Harrison (Indiana) Bourbon.
If you're footing the bill, Napolese (amazing Neapolitan pizzeria) and Rock Bottom are fine choices. Scotty's Brewhouse is a cool hangout with lots of local taps. The Ram also has a hell of a brewer.
Sun King is close and open for tasting/growler fills. Buy some fresh Wee Mac / Osiris for the hotel room.
Your best bet for truly great restaurants is to find one of the districts around downtown:
Mass Ave is walking distance from the core of downtown. Bakersfield is an awesome new taqueria with great taps and food. Chatham Tap has great pub food, unique regional and English drafts (Hobgoblin is always on, for example). Black Market is a bit pricier, but their Pickle Plate and Black Market Burger are out of this world. Outliers Brewing Co (from owner/brewer of Brugge) also just opened.
The Fountain Square area is fairly close and chock full of non-chain variety (if you dont mind fending off hipsters). New Day Meadery is unique and worth the trip (esp if Breakfast Magpie, their blackberry coffee mead, is on tap). La Margarita always has great stuff on tap. Fountain Square Brewery is also in this area. If you like Thai - Siam Square.
If you're nowhere near downtown:
Northwest: Rock Bottom College Park has a badass brewer that makes excellent beer. Squealers makes great BBQ.
If you're staying by the airport or working on the south west (industrial) side of town, check out The Tamale Place.
Local/regional stuff to try: Sun King, 3 Floyds, Upland, People's, New Day (Mead), Fat Head's Head Hunter IPA (Ohio), Schlafly AIPA (St. Louis), Urban Chestnut Zwickel (St. Louis)
Have a great trip!