So I too have been wondering about this for a while and have read quite a few threads on the topic. The obvious real answer to avoid this is simply to close-transfer from primary directly into the keg, purge with CO2 and then cold crash in the keg. I just see problems with this when using lots of dry hop pellets or even fruit additions in the last fermenter before transferring clogging up the dip tube which is a whole other problem.
I read that some say simply to place plastic wrap over the mouth of the carboy. Plastic wrap is gas permeable as far as I know. Now, how fast and how much gas can permeate through the plastic wrap I am unsure of, especially over the course of a 48 hr. cold crash or so.
Some say to use foil over the carboy mouth. Foil will allow oxygen to ingress into the carboy when the temps inside the fermenter headspace drop simply because it is not airtight even with a rubberband.
I myself have always used an s-shaped airlock filled with a small amount of starsan. I have not lost any starsan into the fermenter but have noticed "air" being sucked back into the fermenter as the pressures and temps change. I have not really noticed any major oxidation with my beers using this fashion and wonder how much O2 if any really gets into the beer itself since it is so cold and not typically agitated for the solutions to mix.
I like the idea of the stopper except that it too will bring in oxygen when the stopper is pulled out prior to a gravity reading or transferring. The only upside is that it may minimize the time oxygen contacts the beer as you are only spending a handful of minutes getting a gravity reading/setting up your transferring equipment vs. a 48 hrs or so of oxygen ingress.
I do not agree that the CO2 creates a blanket that protects the beer though, simply b/c as the beer cools the CO2 in the headspace is absorbed into the beer which in turn pulls the oxygen in. I think the AHA needs to conduct a cool experiment on this one simply to see what minimizes oxygen exposure the most ($).
Maybe a combination of all of these techniques is best and should be addressed in an experiment. Foil + wrap? Stopper minimizing oxygen ingress time and allowing the beer to warm up to room temps so O2 doesnt rush in when its removed?
Sorry for the rants...Just had a lot to say on the topic. Any extra thoughts?