You will find what you're looking for in the following books. I would start with Ray Daniels as Drew has suggested.
Michael Jackson, Beer Companion (Running Press, Philadelphia, 1997).
Michael Jackson, The New World Guide to Beer (Running Press, Philadelphia, 1988).
John Palmer, How to Brew, (Brewers Publications, Boulder, CO, 2006).
Al Korzonas, Homebrewing: Volume 1 (Sheaf & Vine, Palos Hills, IL, 1997).
Dave Miller, Dave Miller's Homebrewing Guide (Garden Way Publishing, Pownal, VT 1996).
Gregg Smith, The Beer Enthusiasts Guide (Storey Communications, Pownal, VT, 1994).
Ray Daniels, Designing Great Beers (Brewers Publications, Boulder, CO, 1996).
Jamil Zainasheff and John Palmer, Brewing Classic Styles (Brewers Publications, Boulder, CO, 2007).