Sucrose = cane (or beet) sugar = disaccharide (Glucose +Fructose)
Dextrose = Corn sugar = monosaccharide (D-glucose)
Fructose = monosaccharide (levulose)
From a flavor standpoint, there's no harm with using whatever you got (corn or cane sugar).
If you're using the sucrose in the boil, there is a reported tendency for fructose to undergo Maillard reactions more easily than glucose does.
It is usually cheaper and easier to buy Sucrose (cane or beet sugar). I use it for boiling and bottling.
There are some older references that seem to make a big deal about bottling with dextrose versus sucrose ("bottle bombs beware!"). As Sean says, sucrose will give slightly more carbonation than dextrose.
See JP's table in "How to Brew" http://www.howtobrew.com/section1/chapter11-4.html
I am not sure using invert sugar makes much difference, but if you want to read about how to make it: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invert_sugar
. I'd like to know how others view it.