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Physiology of Alternative Yeasts and Bacteria: How to Use Unique Organisms to Emphasize Flavors in Beer

Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces create more than just ethanol and carbon dioxide during fermentation. Metabolic compounds can enhance beer flavor (e.g. fruitiness, spiciness) or detract from it (e.g. vegetal, fusel). Additional organisms can complicate these profiles. Fermenting with Kluyveromyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora, Pichia, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, and Zymomonas can create complicated interactions between these metabolites and yield unique beer flavors and profiles.